The Government of Mozambique has put in place legislative and policy frameworks for Social Protection (SP) and for climate adaptation and mitigation. It is a working hypothesis of this assessment that by linking SP delivery and support to climate adaptation synergies in terms of increased climate resilience of SP beneficiary households can be achieved.
The assessment sought to identify and assess, in a logical and analytical way, what are the options for linking SP provision and support to climate change adaptation for the benefit of the poorest people in Mozambique. The endpoint of the assessment was to identify ways to strengthen and link SP provision and support to climate adaptation. The new ENSSB strategic actions were taken into account and suggestions developed for strengthening the climate resilience relevant parts of the new strategy.
The assessment was based upon data and evidence collation through secondary information and data review, key informant interviews and central and local (district) levels, focus group discussions with SP programme technical staff and beneficiaries, and analysis of evidence meetings with government agencies. The protocol developed for the assessment was discussed with the ntional SP working group and with representatives of the Ministry of gender, Children and Social Action (MGCAS) – the key Government agency. MGCAS appointed a focal point person to accompany the assessment. The district visited as part of the assessment were selected and agreed with MGCAS.
The assessment found that:
There are significant overlaps and interaction of poverty and climate vulnerability. SP programmes are active in some high climate risk areas due to a focus on poverty rather than on climate risks. SP coverage is limited particularly within, but also between districts. There is therefore substantive geographic evidence to support and good potential for links among SP provision and local adaptation processes.
Climate risk management is not currently integrated into SP programming. Currently local adaptation planning does not focus on the needs of the poorest nor does it seek to align with SP provision. Better methodologies and technical capacity building are neededto integrate climate risk management into SP provision and to facilitate links between SP and climate adaptation.
The national policy framework provides an enabling environment for SP and climate adaptation links. Current inter-institutional coordination is insufficient at all levels. Building upon the higher level political will better incentives for coordination and inter-institutional links are necessary.
The current performance of the SP system is limited by capacity constraints, financial and administrative, and the absence of key management system. Significant investments in the SP system will be required to increase the level of benefits it provides, expand coverage and improve the process for public works priority selection, and the monitoring of outcomes among other design and operational considerations.
The assessment concludes that there are opportunitites to foster a SP system in Mozambique better adapted to the climate risks the system and its beneficiaries face now and in the future. The opportunities can be taken through integration climate risk management into the system, and by better coordination of SP and climate adaptation interventions to benefit the same populations in regions of the country where high poverty incidence and high climate risks coincide. In an annex to this report available to Irish Aid the opportunities, niches and approaches for further work on establishing links among SP and climate adaptation are set out.