This report aims to build the evidence base on children and climate change by focusing on the major climate-related risks; children’s current and future exposure to these risks; and the policies required to protect children from these risks. The report has three sections. The first section explores the major climate-related risks and their potential impacts on children – how climate change might influence the burden of disease for children – and examines the cumulative impact of repetitive crises on children and families. The second section examines how children may be affected under various scenarios of action - from business-as-usual to ambitious action in addressing climate change. The final section outlines a series of broad policy recommendations to prevent further global warming, decrease children’s exposure and increase their resilience to climate change and environmental risks. Building on UNICEF’s child demographic projection series, Generation 2030, the authors aimed to estimate how many children live in climate-affected areas, and how many will live in future climate-affected areas. Severe weather, such as droughts and floods, varies considerably within countries, requiring more detailed information about where children live within countries and how they are impacted.